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I have posted the two post that need replies to and please put the references un

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I have posted the two post that need replies to and please put the references under the post so I know what reference goes with what
Post 1
Topic: How to help struggling readers to better obtain content knowledge across all content areas through explicit vocabulary instruction?
Beliefs about explicit vocabulary instruction as a reading intervention method:
1. Content material that is presented to students across the four academic areas is presented on or above their grade level, which hinders struggling readers from being able to fully access the content knowledge. According to Dewey, there is a great “waste in education” in many aspects due to the manner in which the school is treated as a whole as an organization (Dewey, 1915). He believed that schools, although are formed as an organization, need to look at the learning process based on the individual needs of the child.
2. How do the present methods in the observed schools relate to the all populations in various schools? Chuck and Schutt discuss how researchers agree that there may be external factors that affect the outcomes of a specific body of research, specifically research bias towards a specific and/or desirable outcome (Chuck and Schutt, 2012). It is imperative that researchers examine both their personal and societal bias as part of the research.
3. How does previous research and societal trends relate to the current research ideals being proposed? According to Dewey, there is a tendency to look at the current trends and categorize the organization according to the trend (Dewey, 1912). While it is imperative that teachers look at the designated action and see if it is imperative to not only the classroom, but also the child(ren) in question (Dewey, 1912). Dewey is a proponent of Fruebel’s principles and uses them as a guidance towards the necessities in guiding children in the learning process within the classroom.
4. How can all teachers work and plan together in a manner which classroom instruction benefits all children along their learning path? The focus on this is utilizing vertical and cross-content planning among teachers, administrators, and learning coaches, so that everyone involved is utilizing the best methods and content to help reach struggling learners. Chuck and Schutt (2012) focus on the Constructivist Paradigm, where all those involved focus on how to come to a consensus on the best methods and methodology to use when trying to ascertain the best result instead of using multiple methods and methodologies.
Post 2
Week 1 Discussion
The issue that I have found interesting is the achievement gap found among minority students. The disparities in education for minority students have always been a concern, and the same problems applied to digital devices in schools serving students in urban and rural areas. The following steps could help close the gap by understanding the impact of the lack of early intervention, assessments, resources, and funding. It is also crucial to consider the internal and external factors that contribute to the disadvantages of minority students’ achievement gap in and outside the classroom. Students struggle in reading and math for many reasons and highlighted the crucial role early intervention plays in successful learning. Receiving early intervention in math and reading comprehension can help close the achievement gap. Research has shown that the achievement gap takes place at birth, continues throughout the developmental stages, and can have a lifelong negative impact if not addressed on time (Daniel, 2018).
Before entering the education system, many students are already at a disadvantage. To help close the achievement gap in learning, the use of formal and informal assessments is crucial. In doing so, it provides teachers and administrators the tools that they need to observe students’ knowledge and understanding of key contents. It is important to highlight that both assessments are very important. These assessments allow educators to make instructional decisions to accommodate students learning. The educators within our school system must devote themselves to making learning relevant, relatable, and understandable to students.
Many school districts servicing students and families from low socioeconomic status (SES) are experiencing a lack of resources to provide quality educational services to students. School districts are held responsible for making sure these students are performing at grade level. Research has shown that “the gap was greater for non-technical skills, such as oral and written communication, problem-solving, and ability to learn (Sahin & Celikkan, 2020, p. 343). To better equip students in and outside the school settings, school districts need to ensure that students have the proper structure, technology, and educational resources needed to succeed in their education. There is a struggle between high standards and equality within learning, but both have positive propositions. The blame for students’ success is often placed on the educational system or the school districts. These students are often expected to perform poorly which hinders their ability to move outside their community. Poverty has a large effect on educational achievement and opportunity. To help students meet achievement, they need proper resources to help meet students’ academic needs.
To fully focus on the equity gaps in education in the U.S. school system. It is important to look at how lack of funding impacts many students attending public school systems. Funding and resources go hand and hand when it comes to closing the educational gap in learning. Research has shown that school districts in low-income communities received less funding for resources, which limited their opportunity to improve their academic achievement (Rowley & Wright, 2011). Lack of funding prevents schools to meet students’ basic educational needs. Limited funding means limited access to resources to help close the achievement gap in education.

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