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No need for any citations, this is just an article review from a classmate. Ple

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No need for any citations, this is just an article review from a classmate. Please make comments and any questions you may have.
Phantom limb syndrome is the sensation or feeling of pain in a limb that has been removed. Phantom pain syndrome occurs in 80-100% of all amputees. Sometimes it is not pain, but may be the sensation that the body part that is gone is still there.
Causes:
It can take 3-6 months for the wounds to heal following a limb removal. Typically phantom sensations and pain start months to years after the removal. It is believed that the pain and phantom sensations result from a ‘mix up’ in the nervous system. The nerve that innervate the missing body part is still present or branches of it in the periphery still exist. This can cause confusion and the brain may interpret signals of pain in the area despite the body part being gone.
Remapping: Some studies have shown that after a body part has been amputated the brain works to “remap” that part of the body to another area. For instance if someone lost a foot in an accident then the brain may remap the foot to the thigh which is still an intact body part. Now when that thigh is touched the body interprets it as the missing foot being touched.
Other Potential causes: damaged nerve endings, scar tissue at site of removal, poorly fitted prosthesis.
Symptoms:
Burning, aching, clamping, pinching, itching, shooting/stabbing pains, throbbing, or twisting.
Diagnosis:
Your MD will conduct a physical examination and perform some additional testing to rule out the possibility for infection or anything else that may truly cause the above symptoms. If all other options are ruled out then phantom pain will likely be the diagnosis.
Treatment:
Treatment consists of pain management tools. This includes injections, NSAIDs, pain relievers, beta blockers, muscle relaxers. Other treatments that include electrical stimulation that send electrical impulses to the brain (TENS, neuro stimulation or spinal cord stimulation) may also aid in decreasing physical symptoms.
Mirror therapy: Mirror therapy is when you look at the intact limb via a mirror doing movement exercises for 20 minutes daily. The goal is to trick the brain into thinking there are two healthy limbs instead of just one. The theory is that if the brain thinks there are two healthy limbs then the pain will decrease as the pain loop will stop if the limb is thought to be there. This is a therapy performed with a licensed therapist to start.
Other therapeutic options: acupuncture, biofeedback, massage, meditation/mindfulness practice.
Some findings indicate that a prosthetic limb can help decrease phantom sensations and pain because the nerve senses ‘something’ where the limb used to be.
Other complications: Depression can arise from phantom limb pain as it is common among returning veterans. Seeing a licensed therapist and/or addressing this with further medical intervention is recommended.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17684875/#:~:text=Phantom%20limb%20syndrome%20is%20a,course%2C%20often%20resistant%20to%20treatment
(Links to an external site.)
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https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/12092-phantom-limb-pain
(Links to an external site.)
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/phantom-pain/symptoms-causes/syc-20376272

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