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Question 1: Discuss whether the presence of therapeutic misconceptions impacts

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Question 1: Discuss whether the presence of therapeutic misconceptions impacts the internal validity of a medical research study, that is, the extent to which no other variables other than the ones being studied contributed to the result.
Therapeutic misconceptions happens when a research subject does not acknowledge the differences between the imperatives of treatment and actual treatment. The idea of therapeutic misconception was noted in the 1980s when research participants held mistaken belief that their decision benefited solely when they took part in research study. Most subject in a medical research study do not understand the differences between the roles of research participants and patients (Appelbaum, Anatchkova, Albert, Dunn, & Lidz, 2012). As a result, it negatively interferes with therapeutic intent to procedures of research study. Although the therapeutic misconception is widespread, its progress has been stymied due to lack of validated technique.
Therapeutic misconceptions have negative impact on the internal validity of a medical research study due to distortions in decisions made by subjects. Additionally, researchers are not able to identify the presence of therapeutic misconceptions in their subjects. Therapeutic misconception interferes with a participants’ understanding of a research study; hence, an autonomous decision is affected (Appelbaum, Anatchkova, Albert, Dunn, & Lidz, 2012). Subjects manifesting therapeutic misconception held incorrect belief that that their treatment will be individualized based on their needs and that they will benefit from the research study.
One of the strategies of reducing the detrimental effects of the therapeutic misconception is by providing subjects with clear information about procedures and goals of the study. additionally, researchers should explain to participants on the difference between research study and actual treatment to address the therapeutic misconception. A reliable and valid scale should be developed to allow researchers identify participants who are more likely to misinterpret the nature of the circumstance.
Question 2: Describe one advantage and one disadvantage of universal health care systems as implemented, for example, in the United Kingdom and Canada. You may use outside resources to support your position.
Universal health care systems involve actions taken by government to provide health care to as many citizens as possible. Some governments establish minimum standards and regulation while others use programs that will provide health care services to all people within the country (Zieff, Kerr, Moore, & Stoner, 2020). Generally, the main objective of using universal health care system is to ensure health coverage for every citizen within a country’s jurisdiction to improve their health and wellbeing.
One advantage of universal healthcare system is that it reduces the costs of health care in a country. Universal healthcare system allows government to leverage the size of the market and negotiate for better costs (Zieff, Kerr, Moore, & Stoner, 2020). As a results, the cost of services and medication is more likely to be lower. On the other hand, one disadvantage of the universal healthcare system is that people for the services even though they do not use them. All citizens pay for the services through taxes in a system of healthcare system. The healthy and wealthy population generate bigger costs and yet consume less.
References
Appelbaum, P. S., Anatchkova, M., Albert, K., Dunn, L. B., & Lidz, C. W. (2012). Therapeutic misconception in research subjects: development and validation of a measure. Clinical Trials, 9(6), 748-761.
Zieff, G., Kerr, Z. Y., Moore, J. B., & Stoner, L. (2020). Universal healthcare in the United States of America: a healthy debate. Medicina, 56(11), 580.

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